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Likewise VPN - does the server respond? Maybe it was Gibson who taught me to kill Ping off many many many many many many years ago Point of the waffle above though is that I don't need any of those things to tell me if the service is up or down.

Knowing they're down is as easy as seeing if they respond, and only a tiny part of the problem, and I usually have a few ways to tell whether it's a machine or the whole lot. Given the large corporate and other walled-off chunks, I'd suggest most addresses may not be such. Most in use ones however Also not been a problem. They have several other ways of knowing if you're connected or not without pinging your router. Hell, mine were even able to tell me the fault was a damaged cable between the cabinet and the exchange which they then got someone out to fix pronto, once they'd been notified.

The few times I've needed ISP support, they've had no issues with things not responding to ping. I've been with them for the better part of a decade so that's probably 5 support requests 3 or 4 of which were due to that faulty cable! If my router is connected to their system, they can see it's there. If it's not connected, no amount of PING is going to tell them anything.

Probably because quite sensibly they are sat behind firewalls that block specific ICMP traffic.. According to the most recent figures, half of the IPV4 address values are not in use. Not attached to anything. Not responding to ping or in DNS because they aren't associated with anything. Some of these IPV4 values could be 'easily' recovered. That is, for values of 'easily' which are much more difficult that implementing IPV6.

As demonstrated by the fact that people who actually have to put money into it are adopting IPV6. Even behind a NAT, I find it convenient to allocate users from one end and servers from the other. It's a claim you often see from commentards, but if you're planning to write an article one would hope for a little more precision.

I'd say that the fundamental in retrospect design error was in the Unix network API: the client program has to pass an address to the connect which means it needs to be aware of the structure of the address and explicitly convert a host name before the call. DECnet, for example, allowed you pass the host name effectively in the connect equivalent, so you could in theory switch from Phase IV 16 bit addresses to Phase V without even having to recompile your programs - the network software did the heavy lifting and chose the combination of protocols Phase V also used a different transport, so it was like changing both IP and TCP that would allow communication as the network transitioned.

But in fact, it wouldn't have made a huge difference. It came down to cost rather than technical merit. In the end, it's the bottom line that will drive the process and it's hard enough to get people to see beyond the end of the next quarter and if another hack will postpone some transition costs, then another hack will be sought. There are a number of things that could have been done that would have made transition easier while there were still IPv4 addresses available, but it's too late for that now.

Only political and economic incentives will have any effect, but it's difficult to see how these can be sufficiently compelling: the Internet continues to work as far as most end users see it and end users will not see any improvement from IPv6 - the only thing that might have provided a marketing incentive. Unless, Google, say, makes an announcement that it's turning off its IPv4 connectivity soon, I can't see the urgency increasing. That confused all the clients until their caches caught up.

On ethernet, DECnet phase 4 encoded the area number and the node within the area into the last 16 bits of the MAC address. This provided a means for DECnet nodes on the same ethernet to find one another without using a router.

DECnet was designed to work over serial links as well as ethernet but required either a routing license expensive or a DECnet router even more expensive for a node that had more than one link. The elegant kludge of the MAC address allowed nodes with only one link an ethernet connection to communicate with other nodes on the same ethernet without needing a router.

Oh you're so cruel! I glimpsed that and had a hope, for a moment, that I would be done fighting the evil scum chances of IP6 in the remaining expected years of my life? I've been bashing my head against just two PFSense boxes for days already and now so far I have a headache. And that's just a small outfit. In , LAN was a coaxial cable with terminators at each end. WAN was a telephone line with an acoustic coupler.

That kit has long since gone to the museum, but IPv4 is still around. Your looks like my Your timing's out. There were a few very old probably years PCs in another room that used coax, but they were pretty ancient feeling and only used by a few geeks prepared to read their email via Pine at the Solaris command line.

They got ripped out in Modem-wise acoustic couplers were long gone. I think I got my first modem - baud, as I was buying it from saved up pocket money - in and that connected straight to the phone line. First implementations were in and it didn't even make it into the Windows networking stack as standard until Most homes didn't have it when I left Uni in , and lots of businesses were still on older technologies.

So IPv6 is actually doing pretty reasonably by some measures. I think I got my first modem - baud, as I was buying it from saved up pocket money - in El BOFH could give some interesting glimpses into things.. Take a look at various episodes and when they were published. I still have those cards today though they haven't been powered for more than 10 years.

Hell, during my computing courses the institute still used them.. But then, within 3 weeks I was teaching their 'industry expert' programming tutor a few things about programming. I certainly managed to put my foot through a few ceiling tiles installing UTP between and In , we got fast ethernet. That's not quite correct. There's certainly no way for a machine that believes all addresses are 32 bits long to correctly interpret longer addresses, but it can certainly process them to some extent if it thinks those longer addresses are just part of the data, say in a header extension.

The trick with any backwards-compatible protocol is to create packet formats that new-version systems can fully understand, and old-version systems can at least process enough to get them to some translator or gateway system from where they can be routed. It usually looks like a horrible kludge, which is why the IETF academics ruled it out, but it need not be impossible, at least as a transition measure. There's no way, not even a kludgy, inefficient, way, that an unmodified IPv4 router can get an IPv6 packet to somewhere where it can be processed correctly.

Actually, there's a way for a device on a v4-only network even behind NAT to get v6: Teredo. For some reason, the existence of these protocols doesn't seem to stop people from complaining that they don't exist. That's just a tunnel, it links two islands of IPv6 over an IPv4 network. It isn't a way to provide backward compatibility. You're thinking of 6in4. Teredo lets a single client connect to v6 servers over a v4 network.

All of those let you do v6 over v4 infrastructure. I'm not seeing how that's not backwards compatibility. Backward compatible means that the new version will work with the old, not that the old will work with the new. It also doesn't stop people from moaning constantly about how it's not backwards compatible. Compatibility depends on context and the style and level of interoperability desired. However, the emphasis on end-to-end security in recent years has made things a lot more complex than they were in the early to mid 's when most traffic was unencrypted.

However, expect some things to break, just as they break today with NAT. Sure, you can use a proxy, but it's pretty obvious that just about everybody wants direct network connections rather than proxies, because otherwise they wouldn't be complaining.

People frequently complain that v6 can't do X even though it can. They'd happily complain forever that "v6 can't be proxied" even when presented with evidence that it can be, based on the fact that they do that with most of v6's other capabilities. But what can I do about that? Oh, it will be compatible with IPv4 as a subset.

It adds a byte in the middle, so Lots more addresses only TWO more bytes in the header. Easy for things to translate as needed. Oh, times more addresses. Sorry not enough for every grain of sand on earth, but it should last a few years. How would that be compatible with IPv4? How does an IPv4 host - which by definition has 32 bits of address - communicate with a host that has 40?

Where do the extra bits go? You've made precisely the same mistake as the author of the article. Suppose addresses had only 3 bits - it's fine when you have 8 hosts ignoring localhost and broadcast , but suppose you need to go up to 16 and the new hosts have 4-bit addresses.

The old hosts need to indicate which of the 16 total hosts they want to talk to, but they have only 3 bits with which to do it. It doesn't matter what other details of the protocol may have changed, add one single bit to an address field and you cut half the potential address space off from your old hosts. IPv6 was predicated on a transition occurring before that problem arose and it's not the fault of the IETF there are plenty, but this isn't one that hasn't happened.

I would have expected IP6 to have included native support for IPv4 addressing so you dont need two separate protocols. Try an IPv6 connection, if that fails, fall back to compatibility mode. Problem is that the current system involves two separate protocols, and as long as IPv4 still works, plenty of companies can't see the point of implementing a second protocol. You double the hassle and attack vector for little benefit. Allowing IPv6 to support v4 via a compatibility mode would have helped here.

This is exactly what v6 does. The "compatibility mode" is v4. What else were you expecting it to be? Is that somehow not good enough for you? Not a separate protocol for starters. At the moment, you have the choice of IPv6, IPv4 or both. It would have helped drive IPv6 adoption as you'd have to enable it to get connectivity. Use the GSM approach - create your own alphabet ie: chuck out some numbers and you can fit characters into octets. While it is true there was no compatibility for many years, and surely every suspect is highly ashamed about it, I think can't put my hand onto the RFC itself there is a compatibility now, aka, IPV4 addresses embedded into IPV6 packets.

There is a form of address allocation that uses legacy addresses, but it isn't "compatible" in any meaningful sense: it doesn't help an IPv4 host communicate with an IPv6 host that can't have a bit address because none are left. As long as significant number of end user connections are IPv4 only, pretty much all services will be available on IPv4.

It's a vicious circle. Increased adoption does not help this at all. It's not clear how to break out of this. The complaint that IPv6 isn't compatible with IPv4 is old and easy to make but at the same time no "compatible" proposals have been made that work and address the key problems.

Many ISPs doesn't bother to offer IPv6 - it will make their network configuration and management more complex, end-user support more expensive, they can make some money renting "fixed" IPv4 addresses, and they would need to buy IPv6 address space as well. Here only two main ISPs offer IPv6, and one only in an "experimental" mode you can use it, but don't bother them with issues. How exactly? VLAN tags are entirely different to subnet masks. IPv6 expects you use bits of the prefix for subnetting - not bits of the interface identifier.

Up to 16 bits of the prefix could be a subnet identifier. Trying to use bits of the interface identifier to create subnet could create issues - not all devices may understand it when routing, and could be difficult to assign them but manually, many automatic ways to assign an IPv6 address may not let you assign some fixed bits to the interface identifier.

Yes, the default behaviour using SLAAC is to use the MAC address plus 16 other bits to form the Host address, but there are privacy concerns with that, a device can be tracked across networks that way. Most users are not going to subnet their network, and frankly those that are probably don't want to advertise their unique device identifiers to the internet. If for some reason you absolutely cannot have a shorter than 64 bit host address, and you need to subnet your network, you can subnet on link local addresses, and do some form of NAT Oh I know, NAT is evil, but it is a possibility.

SLAAC on two networks, e. You don't need any more justification than that. But we can aim a little higher than that. At home I have three subnets that can access the internet. One is the main one, one is for IoT devices, the third one is for guests. Plus there are other three internal subnets. All with different firewall rules. My pfSense 2. Anyway if you do NAT on the router, and yo don't "rotate" the mappings you're still giving away perfectly valid unique identifiers.

Pretty much all home users do not need a unique IPv4 routable address. Inside your on or or 10 NATed addresses. It is business that need IP4v addreses. As they renew ISP home boxes to existing homes, they can recover addresses v4 addresses to their business users. Even further, it's only those businesses who want to run their own on-prem publicly accessible services. Most businesses I know use internet for email, maybe some VOIP, and maybe viewing relevant web sites most of what I know are small shops with less than 5 staff, often less than 2.

Most are happy with hosted sites places like wix[sorry for the swearing] etc. Given how many client systems have included an IPv6 stack for circa two decades, the problem is slightly different, namely getting ISP's to both support IPv6 and supply routers with IPv6 enabled.

This would largely remove the need for domestic IPv4 address allocations could let people have one at extra cost if they discover they have devices that only support IPv4 for Internet access. IPv6 should have been an ISP thing. If they had done that, IPv6 would have been adopted long ago, in the backend, and us users wouldn't even be talking about it. Instead, we have the mess we're trudging through today, with some saying IPv6 is not very different from IPv4. Yeah, except that most everyone is still using IPv4, so IPv6 is neither easy nor convenient enough to adapt to at this point in time.

And, since IPv4 addresses are not going anywhere any time soon, I've got the feeling that this kind of conversation will still be taking place in thirty years. What you suggest wouldn't make any difference because the endpoints will still only be able to specify a bit address when sending data packets.

This is the basic issue here. My network card is fully compatible with IPv6, so why do you assume that endpoints wouldn't know how to send a packet to an IPv6 address? I'm not the network guy, I'm talking from an organizational point of view.

And pie-in-sky wishful thinking. They might know how to do it or indeed they might not; have you considered how to handle that case? This is what many mobile networks have already done as they control so much of the configuration especially routerS and would otherwise have to pay more for the addresses. But, otherwise, ISPs counter by saying that as there is no need nor requirement for them to do so and it costs money to change, they won't do it yet.

This could be fixed easily by national regulators… But that would also have involved forcing operating systems and consumer hardware to do IPv6 properly, which was unlikely to happen due the fact that the US still has more than enough IPv4 addresses.

A breakdown by region and mobile or fixed line would probably also show that some countries are pretty much IPv6 already. You still need some kind of agreement for an interconnect and it would have been no problem with requiring telcos the majority of the ISPs to provide IPv6 for the interconnects. They could stay IPv4 internally, though probably wouldn't want to unless they have loads of customers on very old kit that they have no control over.

While I am sure that my thermostat and blender have much to offer to the grand discussion that is the internet, no doubt your appliances struggle with the internet equivalent of "Duurrrrr, what you mean, Davey Yes, because instead of being behind some kind of configurable and controllable firewall, they rely on the dead-safe, honest, UPnP to talk to the rest of the world. Well, they don't have to use UPnP. They could also shovel all your data via a server that they own.

The internet of trash. Has internet connectivity, and security is not a selling point, Unlikely your heating or front door camera is going to stay patched and secure for long. It may be used against you or against other eg in DDos. Best to keep that off your private IPv4 subnet A few weeks ago I was astonished to discover that most email services do not even support IPv6, such as Microsoft's hotmail.

Notable exception: Gmail. Why the US government needs so many IP address no will ever know. Their original one and the one they "inherited" from DEC? My guess is that this is preparation for selling small address blocks if the price justifies it. So there's That one was 'reserved for future use', and the future could be now. But that's.. Multicasting is good for "broadcasting like services" to lots of watchers, eg London traffic cams and Empire State. The multicast enabled routers duplicate on demand.

Which makes a bandwidth billing issue. But there are better ways to do this now. Netflix, Youtube look at traffic flows and put servers where they need to in your IPS racks. They cache near to customer what they can.

They duplicate flows where they need to. The DoD loans out its IPv4 address space. It's great for creating all kinds of panic when you check what network your cellphone is using and it's the DoD. I can hide tens of thousands of rfc private IP's IP's behind a handful of public IP's which are easy to look for, filter and monitor. On IPV6, I would have got a completely different subnet, and I would have had to change everything, all the local devices, all the server virtual machines, all the DNS entries for everything, all the printer settings on anything that can access a printer, email settings for my scanner, firewall rules, and loads of other stuff.

You can try to obtain a Provider-independent address space - but it's not for small users, I'm afraid. It's also better to "parametrize" addresses in rules, etc. This is another aspect that probably looked simple in with simpler, flatter, networks, few server and clients configured by SLAAC - not so much later as network complexity grew.

Well RFC is still listed as being "experimental" and the IPv6 purists still publicly deriding NAT - wanting the Internet to work the way they thing it should "the right way" and not the way network tech's want and need it to work in the real world. Certainly the early implementations mandated the MAC address making up the end part of the IP until it was pointed out it was a privacy and security issue and was then made optional.

Now this is regarded not nice because it does leak a mostly unique identifier of the device which can be tracked across different networks. Probably that was not thought a big issue in when even usable laptops were a kind of novelty. Actually it was desireable. Well, desireable by some, mostly the mobile industry. Along with the idea that exposing MAC addresses. Or other hardware identifiers.

ISPs kinda scratched their heads wondering what benefit there'd be in MAC tagging, other than user tracking. Much the same with the mobile's argument, especially when the operators twigged that having a globally routable IP address on a phone meant users could potentially escape their walled gardens and do things the operators couldn't charge for. Every handset would need 4, IPs? No, I've never heard that.

No, they already know who their users are, either from the prefix or the connection port. Global address on phone lets you escape their walled garden? No, they can still firewall you or do whatever they could do with RFC addresses, public addressing doesn't change one bit of that. Designed by committee? It has roughly the same design as v4. Ops community has to work out the security implications?

Most of them are the same as v4, and for the ones that are different No, that's specifically not what IPs are used for. There is a important distinction between what IPv6 addresses are now being used for and the ideas that were swimming around in the 90's when it was envisaged that IPv6 addresses could be static and thus could embed IMEI's, MAC addresses, phone numbers etc. IP addresses are assigned by the network you connect to. They simply aren't hardware identifiers. The other part, the prefix network part of the address can't be embedded - otherwise routing becomes a nightmare - and quite impossible, as routing tables would become ginormous and would need to change as a device moves to a different network - less common in , quite common in with all the mobile stuff.

Yes, one of the ideas floated in the 90's was that the lower 64 bit was sufficiently large for every device to have their own unique and burnt in static address - and given the size of the IPv6 address space why would you want to bother with assigning your own lower 64 bit address components I believe there are several reasons why IPv4 refuses to die and why people are hesistant to change to IPv6. I think the average person is more likely to remember a X address than the IPv6 equivalent.

But if IPv6 is not backwardly compatible and is not being so widely accepted because of that, why not create an IPv7 that is? Perhaps you wanted v4 to be forwards compatible, but we can't create an IPv7 which v4 is forwards compatible with for the same reason that we didn't create an IPv6 that it's forwards compatible with: because v4 isn't forwards compatible with any address size that's bigger than 32 bits. If you could fix that problem, then we wouldn't need an IPv7. You could just make v4 be forwards compatible with v6.

That's what Jesus would do. Following Kieren's link, one can find Google's stats of IPv6 users, which tells a whole different story than the doom'n'gloom he's peddling, with a rather steady growth:. Isn't that akin to demanding an explanation of why motorcars were not made backward compatible with horses? That seems like something that could explain the lack of an answer.

While a little off-topic, I sincerely appreciate the continued illumination of a truly screwed up, asshole driven and morally corrupt company. I'm not sure that a Belgian catering company ever needed three quarters of that space especially as they haven't used it in 20 years nor that a European weather satellite organisation needs a quarter of it. Great, that buys us a two hour supply of IPs. That'll solve our address shortage. Brilliant plan. The IPV4 header can have an "options" field of up to 40 bytes, so it would have been possible to kludge on an extension to the address size without breaking the header structure.

Good idea, but that would be slightly ugly to implement in the wire-speed hardware, where efficiency is king. If you need a new public facing IP address then from now on you get IPv6 and no choice in the matter. IPv6 works, is demonstrably in use by millions of people and to my knowledge nobody has yet died due to not being able to get an IPv4 address. Luckily, unless you really want to do something hyper-complicated yes, it's you, the weirdos who just HAVE to subnet the crap out of everything, even when it's totally unnecessary it just works most of the time.

I could care less what my public IP address is. Just because there are no longer any free, unallocated IPv4s doesn't mean that we are out of them. What it means is that IPv4 addresses are now a scarce, "rivalrous" resource. So fucking what? We have an entire field of study dedicated to dealing with rivalrous resources. It's called "economics. So IPv4s will now have price tags attached to them. As demand increases, that price will go up. As the price goes up, people will find ways to use them more efficiently.

More carrier NAT, more consolidation of servers behind reverse proxies, etc. And as that becomes more obnoxious, expensive, and inconvenient, those factors will move people to IPv6. And then IPv4 utilization will decrease, the price will eventually drop to zero, few people will notice, and nobody will care.

Enough with the pearl-clutching already. The problem will take care of itself just fine. That is all very well and true, but it's also very counter to the philosophy of the internet. Most proponents of internet use and it's position in society as an overall good usually emphasize the fact that there's no NEED for expensive "rivalrous resources". It should all be cheap and intangible, made out of thin air and available to the maximum number of people to foster the development and easy transferance of ideas and thoughts.

It'd be like arguing that you shouldn't be able to print new books cheaply because we've already used up all the moveable type. Also, populations increase exponentially, not linearly Thanos is shit at math , so I'm not sure how you figure over a hundred years is a reasonable timeline for predicting a usable pool of IPv4 addresses. And populations also tend to crash catastrophically; given the perfect storm forecast for the coming decades and our unwillingness to change our ways I've been asking them to change to IPv6 for years now.

I finally had to define very pointed questions like "Is ther an actual plan to migrate over, and if so, what is it? I later determined, after literal months of back and forth, that the guys in charge of that sort of thing think they should definitely do it, and have no actual framework or rough idea about HOW they're going to do it outside of saying "We have a rough plan about how we're going to do it" the actual response I got when I asked about what the rough plan might be. This way many of the issues - still outstanding in IPv6 circa , could be worked on and solved, before IPv6 hit the primetime, ie.

However, not been aware of any great impetus in recent years to actually move things forward other than the regular cries of "we're out of IPv4 addresses - people must start using IPv6". Would it not be possible to convert some local IP address blocks to Internet accessible addresses? The entire range of Same with I pretty much agree, but i wouldn't say "surely". With the growth of interconnected appliances and IoT devices you could likely use a large of that.

Imagine the headquarters of a tech company where every coffee machine and lightbulb is a "smart" version of itself. Surely not. But in my LAN, I use both the For instance, So, while I don't use all of the addresses in the range, I do leverage the ability to use any arbitrary address in those ranges. But does that convenience outweigh the possibility that you will have to share your public IP address with 10 other customers of your ISP? Which would effectively stop you setting up any sort of public-facing server in your home.

Yes, actually. I could restrict my use without pain for instance, I don't really need both the If the range that is safe to use gets too restricted, then it just means that I'll implement something to make it work, either with fancy router tricks or switching my LAN to use IPv6. I'm not sure which way I'd go -- it all depends on what the least painful path is, and I haven't needed to conduct that analysis yet.

The fun and games start when two companies merge and both have extensively used This is about the only scenario where I can see the benefit of end systems behind the firewall having universally unique IP addresses. Weeks or at most months. IPv4 only devices would be museum pieces by now. All consumer ISPs should do this.

This will incent web service designers to build IPv6-native applications. The way to make IPv6 "backwards compatible" would have been to make addresses variable-length. Initially, all addresses would just happen to be 32 bits in length. But after everyone's converted over, then you start handing out addresses that are longer than 32 bits. In 20 years we'd have gotten there by now. For example, if your ISP assigns you And when someone on the other side of the world sends a packet deep into your network, the most specific address on the public Internet is still Think that's silly?

People already moan constantly about how "complicated" v6 is, despite v6 using the same addressing and routing model as v4. I can only imagine how bad it would be if you introduced variable-length addresses, which would be an actual additional complication over v4.

But also I don't think making v6 have variable length addresses would help much, because the thing you're trying to make it compatible with is v4 and v4 doesn't have variable-length addresses, so it wouldn't be able to cope with any address length beyond 32 bits. Variable length addresses wouldn't save you from needing to fix software to handle the new address family and that's going to be fun, what with all existing code being designed around fixed-length addresses.

The prevalence of buffer overrun bugs suggests that many programmers can't cope with things that have variable length The other major issue is that routing performance wouldn't be great, since handling a variable length address in hardware is not very fast. That would probably result in adoption happen slower rather than faster.

But it doesn't quite use the same model, remember it is more prescriptive about how the first 64 bits are divided up eg. Although I suppose this is in line with the original specification of IPv4 when subnetting hadn't been considered. It's the same as in v6, with the only real difference being that v6 actually has the space to do sparse, aggregated allocations at all levels.

That approach continues to not work. IPv6 still sits at around 24 per cent of internet traffic - and has actually gone down from last year. The reason for this is people have not been migrating and thanks to the shutdown of some IPv6 tunnel brokers, some people are now back on only IPv4. There are the networks that refuse to peer on IPv6, even when they have done so over IPv4.

Then there are the security concerns. The fact that technical solutions keep removing a sense of urgency. Of course, I am a dual setup and my computers just fall back onto IPv4. It is possible that NAT64 could be their complaint, but my guess is that the folks that are making an excuse to not go to IPv6 are the people that have never used IPv6. So, I did NAT66 and have been using it ever since.

So I blocked them from my router and I setup a tunnel with a different provider. When they finally put in IPv6 I will never be on it. I suspect it's as simple as And if you insist on dealing with the IPs themselves, why did you pick an address like "fdaa:bbcc:ddeec8a:a8c9:d4fb:acf1" when you could just as easily have picked "fd", which is even shorter than the v4 address you used as a comparison?

Because in the real world you'll find that devices will typically have IPv6 addresses of the form:. So given the constraints of the Fundamentally, IPv4 comes from a time when making things easy for people to use was a consideration. The address you gave is If you get your v6 addresses from a DHCP server like you do in v4, then your address will look like the one I gave in my original post.

You'll only need to remember the "" bit, which is basically no different to v4. Only to the extent that I transcribed it incorrectly, switching a digit and colon. Which demonstrates quite nicely that IPv6 addresses aren't really intended to be used by humans, even ones used to working in hex Yes, it was a local link address, but it was to hand and illustrates the point: put a wireshark on a LAN and on many networks in todays IPv4 first environment, you will lots of 'interesting' IPv6 addresses.

As I've not seen a pure IPv6 network, I'm not sure what I would see, but given IPv4, I anticipate in addition to the DHCP assigned addresses there will be a few 'interesting' addresses that will need to be investigated. One of the things you want in a business is a barrier to entry for would-be competitors, the higher the better. If there is no barrier to entry then competition will drive prices down to the point where you can barely make any money as any Uber driver will tell you.

Having a barrier to entry lets you raise prices to just below the point where competitors would find it profitable to buy in. In fact the secondary market makes those an appreciating asset, something else that businesses like to have. If IPv6 becomes widespread then this barrier to entry disappears and the existing pools of IPv4 become worthless.

So it is in the ISPs interests to delay this evil day for as long as possible. I'm on Vodafone fibre. No IPv6 yet or even planned. They did find time to send me a new router that my laptop doesn't like though. I have a personal Fb page but it's locked down and with minimal info on it because it's sole function is to administer my business page.

Since Fb don't allow you to create a business page without a personal page to administer it I have no choice. My family has been informed of this and that no messaging will be responded to or friends made. I could do without cute family bagy photos I've just become a Great Uncle cluttiering things up. As for advertising on Fb, I've never seen any.

Maybe Adblock really does work, or something. So get up the hardware manufacturers to guarantee their gear can do that and that be one step in the right direction. The problem with IPv6 is not whether it can be made to work, clearly it does. Since that will never happen, we can predict that IPv6 will never deliver any value. There is absolutely nothing you can do on IPv6 that you can't do with IPv4. And the world hasn't exhausted it's creativity with IPv4 addresses yet, such as utilizing the massive reserved I'm pretty sure I've explained to you before that v6 does deliver value even before every device supports it.

It's delivering value right now, so we can already declare your prediction wrong. NAT is not as capable as you think. There are many things it breaks, and many things that are still possible in the face of NAT but only with additional effort and expense. NAT is useful as a delaying tactic but is not a desirable end goal. However, turning IPv6 on breaks everything in my house, starting with Ubuntu upgrades, so off it has gone and off it stays.

If and when we eventually switch to all IPv6, as IT techs, how in blazes are we going to remember IP addresses in our heads? You're going to pick addresses like "dbd", which isn't really that much longer than " IPv4 depletion and IPv6 slow adoption are obvious reasons why jacs. Not a member of The Register? Create a new account here. Remember me on this computer?

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User topics Article topics. User topics Article topics Please log in to join the discussion or create an account. Remember me. House rules Send corrections. Add to 'My topics'. This post has been deleted by its author. Errrr Nope it isn't. The cut-off-your-nose-to-spite-your-face guy!

Tuesday 26th November GMT tip pc. Wednesday 27th November GMT gnarlymarley. Easy Peezy If you don't use an IP it should revert back for re-assignment. Do Sky really give you a routable IPv6 address, or is it just a link-local one? If they did I'd use it. Tuesday 26th November GMT sebbb. Tuesday 26th November GMT bombastic bob.

IPv6 not that hard Re: IPv6 not that hard Your phone almost certainly uses IPv6. But I bet that your phone does and you don't even know it. And he will be dead in a ditch. Boris wins one. I'm sure he most certainly could get a majority vote on that. Tuesday 26th November GMT iainr. Tuesday 26th November GMT heyrick. The main hold outs are Virgin Media and Talk Talk. Tuesday 26th November GMT druck. Most residential cheap ISPs don't currently provide IPv6 connectivity Fixed that for you - and to be fair, most people wouldn't know what IPv6 was if it bit them.

Although, a downside of X. Wednesday 27th November GMT fibrefool. Tuesday 26th November GMT codejunky. Doctor Syntax "But won't this get in the way of the Corbyn internet for all promise. Except for the tax bit. But could you pay a tax bit in bitcoins? Re: Doctor Syntax "And it will be free! Re: Doctor Syntax Until future upgrade costs are compared to how many extra doctors we could have instead of slightly faster internet.

Re: Doctor Syntax and the tax will be "for the many not the few". Monday 25th November GMT auburnman The internet will be privatised Lack of new addresses means existing companies find themselves sitting on an artificially scarce resource - the hyper-capitalist dream.

Monday 25th November GMT cdegroot. Re: The internet will be privatised agreed. Re: The internet will be privatised Rubbish. Tuesday 26th November GMT hammarbtyp. Tuesday 26th November GMT phuzz. We're keeping it for now Re: The internet will be privatised those net blocks aren't issued by ISPs?

Who issued them? Wednesday 27th November GMT phuzz. Re: The internet will be privatised "those net blocks aren't issued by ISPs? Tuesday 26th November GMT elaar. They'd raise a ton of money Re: The internet will be privatised "Lack of new addresses means existing companies find themselves sitting on an artificially scarce resource - the hyper-capitalist dream.

Wednesday 27th November GMT veti. Re: The internet will be privatised It's interesting to view "online" through the "frontier" metaphor. IP6 is not backward compatible. Unfortunately, most content lives on IP4 and will for quite some time. Google Hangouts I believe can utilize IP6.

They belong together. Re: Nope, never saw this coming All of them are fairly dubious players but I very much doubt IPv6 will benefit them much in their surveillance capitalism endeavours. It takes care of discovery, transactions, and block propagation.

This layer can also be termed as propagation layer. This P2P layer ensures that nodes can discover each other and can communicate, propagate and synchronize with each other to maintain valid current state of the blockchain network. Visit the following Transaction flow subsection, in this chapter to experience the P2P layer in terms of transaction broadcast, transaction proposals, transaction validation and transaction commit. This layer also takes care of the world state propagation.

Nodes perform transactions on the blockchain. There are two kinds of nodes—full node and light node. Full nodes ensure the verification and validation of transactions, mining, and the enforcement of consensus rules. They are responsible for maintaining trust in the network.

Light nodes only keep the header of the blockchain keys and can send transactions. The consensus protocol is the core to the existence of blockchain platforms. As the saying goes, behind every blockchain, there is a consensus algorithm. The consensus layer is the most critical and crucial layer for any blockchain Ethereum, Hyperledger, or any other. Consensus is responsible for validating the blocks, ordering the blocks, and ensuring everyone agrees on it.

Consensus methods vary for different types of blockchain. For example, consensus, when followed by a permissionless blockchain network such as Ethereum, Bitcoin, and so on, is known as a probabilistic consensus. Such a consensus guarantees consistency of the ledger, though there is a possibility that various participants have different views of the blocks.

This means that they remain vulnerable to ledger forks also known as divergent ledgers. Permissioned blockchains such as Hyperledger Fabric follow deterministic algorithms. Such blockchain networks have specific nodes called ordering nodes; blocks validated by these ordering nodes are considered as final and true. Hence, there is no probability of a fork. The following table outlines a quick comparison of some of the consensus algorithms mentioned in this book:.

The application layer is comprised of smart contracts, chaincode, and dApps. Application layer can be further divided into two sub-layers —application layer and execution layer. Application layer has the applications that are used by end users to interact with the blockchain network. It comprises of scripts, APIs, user interfaces, frameworks.

For these applications, blockchain network is the back-end system and they often connect with blockchain network via APIs. Execution layer is the sublayer which constitutes of smart contracts, underlying rules and chaincode. This sublayer has the actual code that gets executed and rules that are executed. A transaction propagates from application layer to execution layer, however the transaction is validated and executed at the semantic layer smart contracts and rules.

Applications sends instructions to execution layer chaincode; in case of Hyperledger fabric , which performs the execution of transactions and ensure the deterministic nature of the blockchain such as permissioned blockchain like hyperledger fabric. It needs a compiler to syntactically prove the code. Since it is compiled, the bytecode is smaller and runs faster on EVM.

Code executed on EVM is fully isolated and does not have any interaction with the network or filesystem. A smart contract contains functions that are executed when a transaction is performed against those functions. Depending on the logic of the smart contract, a transaction can result in a change of state in the contract.

Once deployed, a unique address is assigned to the smart contract. Any user on the blockchain can execute a transaction against that smart contract. Refer to the following transaction flow for the steps of a transaction on an Ethereum blockchain.

Smart contracts are written in a high language such as Solidity and deployed to EVM for execution. These are called oracles and dApps. An oracle is an agent whose task is to securely provide these values to a smart contract. Oracles are like data feeds from third-party services, which supply values to smart contracts.

Chaincode Hyperledger Fabric : Smart contracts are the transaction logic that controls the life cycle of business objects, which are contained in the world state. Smart contracts are then packaged together into chaincode, which is then deployed to the blockchain business network. In Hyperledger, smart contracts govern the transactions, while chaincode governs the packaging and deployment of smart contracts.

A chaincode can contain many smart contracts. For example, in an insurance chaincode, there can be smart contracts for claims, liability, processing, and so on. Chaincode is deployed on network nodes, and smart contracts run on a peer node owned by an organization, mostly written in standard languages such as Java, Node.

Chaincode runs on a secure Docker container that's available to each blockchain instance. These containers are independent of other nodes in the network; however, these chaincodes are orchestrated by the peer nodes and act as proxies, allowing access to client applications via REST APIs or SDK. Chaincodes are initiated for channels.

An administrator can define an endorsement policy for a chaincode for a given channel. This ensures that all the smart contracts, which are packaged in the chaincode, are available for that channel. Because of this, a chaincode might follow different endorsement policies on different channels based on the endorsement policy that's been configured for that channel.

Smart contracts can communicate with other smart contracts on the same channel or other channels. It's a decentralized application that leverages smart contracts or chaincode. Once deployed, they belong to the blockchain network. Smart contracts allow you to connect to blockchains, whereas dApps allows you to connect to a smart contract or chaincode. However, in dApps and the smart contract world, dApps are API-based web applications that connect with smart contracts, which in turn execute transactions on the ledger.

A few examples of dApps are financial applications such as invoice factoring, KYC, and so on. When a user performs a transaction on a traditional system, there is a trusted third party involved who takes care of transaction processing, transaction logging, maintaining the ledgers and balances, and, in return, charge a transaction fee.

With a DLT such as blockchain for example, Ethereum , every participating full node has a copy of the ledger blockchain. The trust is on the system itself as there is no party involved. Users initiate transactions, which are validated and grouped in a block and, based on consensus, the block is added to the ledger blockchain.

This section is dedicated to the structure of block headers, transactions, adding transactions to a block, and finally, adding blocks to the blockchain. We have discussed blockchain and, in particular, Ethereum, in this section. However, we will be delving into DLTs such as Hyperledger in detail in subsequent chapters.

There, we will walk through the structure, transaction flow, participants, and algorithms that are specific to Hyperledger Fabric. A transaction will then lead to a change of state, where the recent state is termed the current state. Transactions are grouped into blocks. A block is chained to a previous block with a cryptographic hash, representing a chain of blocks called a blockchain. Here, the cryptographic hash is used as a reference.

Blocks themselves are the journals, and the blockchain is the ledger where blocks record one or more transactions. Incentives are offered to miners, and incentivization occurs at the state transition. A blockchain that offers incentives to miners needs to have a consensus to transmit value to the miner. For example, Ethereum considers Ether as the value in the Ethereum blockchain, and it's used to offer incentives to the miner.

The smallest unit of value, Wei, is used for incentivization in Ethereum. Mining is a process where various nodes solve a puzzle to validate a transaction so that more transactions can be added as a block within the blockchain. This process of validating transactions is known as mining. Many miners act at the same time to validate the transaction and, once done, they submit a proof of their work, which is mathematical proof.

This is the process of miners solving a puzzle and submitting a PoW. The winning miner is rewarded with some form of value. If it's Ethereum, then a certain amount of Ether is offered as a reward to the miner. As Ethereum is decentralized, every node has equity and can participate in creating new blocks.

There could be malicious participants as well who might propose a new path. Hence, the system makes sure to reach a consensus that follows on from the genesis block to the current block. Mapping between account addresses bit unique identifier and the account state is termed the world state, which is maintained in the Merkle tree Trie. The Trie is maintained in the state database.

Since the root node is dependent cryptographically on all of the internal nodes' data, the root node's hash can be used as a global secure identity for the blockchain network. Small objects constitute the shared global state of Ethereum. These objects interact via message-passing framework.

These objects are termed as accounts. A state is associated with each account and each account has a byte address, where accounts are identified by a bit identifier. Ethereum has two kinds of accounts, where externally owned accounts have no codes associated and they can initiate new transactions. However, contract accounts have contract codes attached to them, along with a unique address, and they cannot initiate new transactions.

Contract accounts can only perform contract-to-contract messaging. Remember, external accounts initiate transactions by signing them with their private keys and sending those transactions to another external account or to a contract account.

If the transaction is sent to a contract account, this will result in the execution of the business logic of the contract account smart contract's account. Both of these accounts have an account state that is represented by four components: nonce, balance, storage root, and code hash. Balance shows the base unit of the Ether in the Ethereum blockchain.

The storage root holds the hash of the root node of the Merkle tree, while the code hash contains the hash of the code on the contract account, which is deployed on EVM. A block is comprised of a block header BH , transaction set BT , and the other block's headers for the current block's ommers BU , as shown in the following code:.

Ommers are those miners whose blocks were orphaned and didn't make it to the blockchain. However, they were successful in mining the block, but their block was added in time. Ethereum offers a low incentive to those miners as well. The receipt of each transaction comprises cumulative gas prices of the block in which the transaction resides, the set of logs created for the transaction, the bloom filter from the transaction log, and the transaction's status code. A transaction is signed and created by external accounts.

These transactions result in messages being sent between contract accounts and the creation of a contract account. Each transaction has the following fields:. The following diagram shows the transaction, block, and inclusion of the block to the blockchain, which are discussed in detail in this section.

Please refer to this diagram while reading about the transaction components, block header components, blockchain, and transaction flow. It also shows the inclusion of consensus in the entire process:. Transactions are executed in the EVM. When a transaction is executed, it passes through initial validation:.

Now, we know that transactions are executed in the EVM and that they have to go through various validation and processing steps. In this section, we will walk through the steps for adding a transaction to the block, which are as follows:. Now, we understand how transactions are added to a block. In this section, we'll look at how a block is added to the blockchain. We already know that the block header contains mixHash and nonce, which prove the sufficiency of the computations performed on the block.

A seed is calculated for each block by scanning the header of the block until that point in time. From the seed, a pseudo-random cache is computed and, from the cache, a dataset is generated. Full clients and miners need to store this dataset. Miners will randomly pick a few slices of the dataset and will hash them together into mixHash.

Each miner will continue to repeat this set of generating mixHashes, until the mixHash matches the nonce. Transactions that are part of this block are also considered to be confirmed. Remember, there are many miners on the network, and they get to hear about the transaction at different times. Hence, each miner is mining different transactions this could also be based on the transaction fee associated with each transaction , and so is generating its own block.

Since each miner is building its own block with its own set of transactions in it, how does the block that gets mined and validated come to a common agreement? They reach a common agreement based on the consensus. It is evident that miners perform validation of the transaction and build their own block of transactions.

Once they solve the puzzle and create a new valid block, they broadcast it to the blockchain network. This is where the consensus algorithm of the blockchain appears, which will ensure that the blockchain network reaches a consensus about the ordering of the transactions and about whose valid block needs to be added to the blockchain. This is taken care of by consensus algorithms such as PoW or PoS.

Ethereum uses PoW and will move to PoS soon. With PoS being the consensus algorithm for the blockchain network, any miner who solves the problem first and broadcasts the valid block will be considered the winner. With PoS, the creator of a new block is chosen in a deterministic way, depending on its wealth, which is also defined as its stake.

Interestingly, there are no block rewards in PoS and so the miners will be offered transaction fees. This is the reason why miners are forgers in PoS and not miners. The following table lists the differences between PoW and PoS:. Miners compete with each other to validate and propose a valid block to be added to the blockchain so that the miners get rewarded. There are no miners and no mining rewards. Forgers creators of new blocks are chosen deterministically and are offered transaction fees.

The main benefits are the anti-DoS attack defenses and the low impact of stake on mining possibilities. Mining possibilities may result in cases, where the holders of a high stake, can turn out to be in charge of the blockchain network. With PoS Casper, there will be a validator pool and network that will select the forger from this pool. Forgers need to submit a deposit to participate and be listed as a validator in the validator pool. If they violate or misbehave, they will be charged economically, their deposits will be taken away, and the forger will be delisted.

So, for someone to attack Ethereum, the dollar amount is in billions, and its occurrence is far from reality. This is also based on the fact that the nodes are deterministic. The final result is attained when all honest nodes reach an agreement on the order and collectively accept or reject the order. Broadly, there are two kinds of blockchain network—public and private.

Both are P2P networks, where the ledger is distributed among those that can participate in the transaction. The ledger copy is replicated among participants, and those parties that can execute append-only transactions to the ledger will hold a copy of the ledger and will participate to reach a consensus to add a block to the blockchain. Along with being public or private, a blockchain can be both permissionless such as Bitcoin or Ethereum and permissioned such as the Hyperledger blockchain framework.

A permissionless blockchain is also known as a public blockchain because anyone can join the network. Parties communicate on a permissionless blockchain without verifying the transacting parties' identities. Anyone can join a permissionless blockchain such as Ethereum and can perform read and write transactions. As the actors are not known, there are chances of malicious actors being in a network. By virtue of the limited nodes, they are faster and inexpensive, can comply with regulations, and can easily be maintained.

Pre-verification of the participating parties is mandatory for a permissioned blockchain and, hence, transacting parties are made. Permissioned blockchains such as Hyperledger Fabric ensure that only transacting parties are part of the transaction and that records of the transaction are displayed to only those participants and not to the whole network.

Hence, capabilities such as data privacy, immutability, and security are the primary capabilities that Hyperledger offers to enterprises. The answer to enterprise needs is a private and permissioned blockchain network. Private and permissioned blockchain can also be termed a consortium blockchain.

A consortia a consortium of members controls them. Nodes are predefined and access rights are defined. Examples of such blockchain networks are R3 and Hyperledger Fabric. The following table highlights the similarities and differences between different types of blockchain from the permissions perspective:. Anyone who meets the predefined criteria can download the protocol and participate with validate transactions. Anyone in the network can participate and validate transactions.

However, this is only within the enterprise. The following table highlights the similarities and differences between different types of blockchain from a transaction and anonymity perspective:. Everyone will know that 10 bitcoins were transacted. Write transactions can be authored or initiated by anyone; for example, I'm casting my vote. However, whom I have cast my vote for can be counted by the authorized institution only. Another example is that a write can be performed by few and it can be read by all.

A write transaction is performed by few and it can be read by anyone. For example, an authorized party writes about the source of the inventory, and subsequent writes are performed by a few other intermediary parties or devices; however, it can be read by anyone. A write transaction can be authored or initiated by authorized users; for example, I'm sending 10 USD to Bill. Authorized institutions will know that 10 USD was transacted. The following table shows the consensus and use case for different types of blockchain:.

Not just anyone can run a full node to transact, validate, and read transactions. Everyone can execute write transactions, while few can validate and read transactions. Only individual or selected members can run a full node to transact, validate, and read transactions. A few can execute write transactions and validate transactions, while everyone can read. Only members of the consortium can run a full node to transact, validate, and read transactions.

In addition, only permissioned users can read. The advantages of public and permissionless blockchain are as follows:. In this section, we compared different types of blockchain and learned about their advantages, disadvantages, and so on. In the next section, the emphasis will be on the layered structure of the blockchain architecture. Until now, we have explored different types of blockchain network. In this section, we will quickly look at two major blockchain platforms—Ethereum and Hyperledger Fabric.

The following are a few points to note:. In this section, we will cover various actors involved in blockchain. However, before we get into the details, let's briefly revisit the private blockchain. The previous section covered various types of blockchain networks. However, in this section, we will focus on defining actors primarily for private blockchain networks. Private blockchain is meant to solve enterprise business cases, and this evolution is gaining momentum.

Private and permissioned is a consortium blockchain that works across various organizations; however, it has a controlled user group. Participants, although not fully trusted, are identifiable have identities. Like-minded enterprises or enterprises trying to chase similar goals can form a consortium to address business needs, improve trust, transparency, and accountability, and enhance existing business processes and workflows. Private and permissionless blockchains, are not truly distributed.

They are decentralized and are fully controlled by a single owner. As it is owned and operated by a single authority, consensus that's established in such a network cannot be trusted as the power lies with the central authority to choose users and influence consensus. A consortium blockchain private and permissioned blockchain is owned by a founder organization, but managed by a consortia set of participants from different organizations.

Consensus can be trusted as various organizations participate in it and they have a collective interest in the outcomes. So far, we've discussed various private blockchain networks and the benefits of a consortium. Now, let's get back to the main topic of this section—actors. The following figure shows various actors for private blockchain network:. Each actor has a defined and key role to play in the development, operation, and maintenance of the blockchain network.

However, the most challenging work lies with the architect. The architecture of designing, building, maintaining, and using blockchain applications involve various actors, which are discussed as follows:. Blockchain is a disruptive technology and is the future. However, due to technical complexities, lack of expertise and skills, and operational overhead, the adoption of blockchain is slow.

So far, we've discussed DLT, blockchain, centralized and decentralized systems, and ledgers. We also looked at the blockchain structure, blocks, and so on. Subsequent chapters will revolve around use cases and the implementation of a use case using Oracle's Blockchain Cloud Platform BaaS.

At this stage, you might be curious about how we will implement this. Consider this section as a glimpse into a blockchain solution provider and where it should reside. There are various steps before implementing blockchain. They start with identifying the use case and choosing the solution providers. Some of the questions you will need to answer are as follows:. BaaS is a blockchain platform that hosts a consumer's blockchain applications and solutions. The blockchain platform BaaS provider, for a fee, handles the setup, maintenance, and support of the blockchain infrastructure.

It is a boost to businesses and entrepreneurs as it offloads a lot from customers and allows them to focus on identifying use cases and developing blockchain applications and solutions. Things such as network availability, scalability, performance, and so on stay with the service provider.

Blockchain touches on a wide range of audiences, which includes architects, designers, developers, enthusiastic evangelists, business and process owners, IT strategists, and economists. In addition, BaaS, being a full-stake cloud-based solution, empowers entrepreneurs, enthusiastic evangelists, enterprises, and so on to grasp the potential of DLT and blockchain in a timely and efficient manner. BaaS is turning into a true catalyst to expand the adoption of DLT and blockchain.

To keep it simple, BaaS solves cost, efficiency, and transparency challenges. It allows the business to explore, experiment, experience, and then engage in blockchain. It takes away the intricacies of implementation and allows the business to focus on the core.

It's analogous to an aged whiskey. You can trust its manufacturer and pay for it to enjoy it. You do not need to get into the details of where it was manufactured, under what conditions, how it was treated, and so on. Blockchain enables product provenance. There is an explosion of ideas around use cases, which can be advantageous for DLT, and blockchain and BaaS will drive the wave in the adoption of DLT and blockchain, thereby realizing and fulfilling these ideas for enterprises, customers, and entrepreneurs.

There are various use cases that can be addressed by leveraging BaaS:. BaaS is a platform with a magnitude of features on the top of a platform such as Hyperledger Fabric. Using BaaS offerings, customers can create networks and channels and build and deploy chaincode and dApps.

Cloud service providers take care of the mundane necessary activities such as infrastructure agility, scalability, and operational efficiency, while customers can focus on building applications and chaincode. BaaS is a major boost to the adoption of blockchain, which is a BaaS offering in most of the major cloud solution providers.

With a cloud platform such as Oracle's Blockchain Cloud Service, you don't need to bring your own security, identity management, container management, admin console management, infrastructure, HA, and recovery. It is all with the cloud service provider.

The following are a few of the key advantages of BaaS:. Hyperledger Fabric base is not preassembled. Hence, the enterprise needs to build chaincode and benefit from Hyperledger Fabric; they need to set up the Hyperledger Fabric infrastructure, handle its prerequisites, and configure and maintain it. The enterprise needs to ensure the integration of the installed Hyperledger Fabric environment with a security stake and manage the life cycle of all of the containers. The enterprise needs to handle the patching and upgrades and needs to ensure the system's huge availability, performance, business network management, and so on.

Oracle's blockchain platform is based on Hyperledger Fabric. With OBP, the enterprise's responsibilities to set up, manage, and maintain the blockchain platform will shift toward Oracle BaaS provider , and the enterprise can continue to focus on building work class blockchain applications and solutions.

With Hyperledger Fabric being the base, any vendor including Oracle offering solutions on top of it must automatically adhere to industry standards. Interoperability challenges such as governance, naming convention standards, and unified data models need to meet common consensus. For example, a consortium where participants mutually agree on standards, rules of participation, sharing of cost and profits, governance mechanism, and collective risk mitigation, along with the inclusion of analytics, auditing, and validation to ensure smooth blockchain network operations.

OBP offers a console to manage networks, channels, and users. It offers a REST proxy and various other infrastructure services to set up, build, and maintain a blockchain network. It's built on top of Hyperledger Fabric and adds a lot of rich features to allow for the ease of operations, enhanced security, and high accessibility. The Oracle offering includes infrastructure services and various embedded resources such as compute, containers, storage, event streaming, and identity management.

Oracle has the following features:. While analyzing the blockchain solution, identifying the use cases, and choosing the most relevant blockchain platform, it's strategically important to look at the core systems, business processes, and benefits the enterprise will reap from the inclusion of blockchain in your ecosystem. Blockchain cloud platform is an excellent addition to your cloud strategy. Cloud and blockchain strategies go hand in hand with a vision toward the future of autonomous organizations.

This book contains details and practices around Hyperledger Fabric and its realization though Oracle's blockchain cloud platform. We will be going though this in detail in subsequent chapters. The previous section listed OBP and its features. It also tried to match them with BaaS qualifiers. This qualifier essentially displays the capability and maturity of BaaS offerings from a vendor. In this context, Oracle offers many applications that are built on OBP.

Oracle is the pioneer in creating SaaS-based blockchain applications that allow business applications to leverage blockchain technology for traceability, enhanced security, and streamlined consensus. They are seamlessly integrated with other SaaS applications, such as s upply chain management SCM , enterprise resource planning ERP , and other cloud-based applications.

They are also integrated with machine learning applications and IoT and AI applications. These applications solve common challenges faced by enterprises such as tracking, tracing, visibility, and root cause analysis. Blockchain is a technology that remembers.

It is a technology that removes the hurdle in the tracking, tracing, and visibility of products. Oracle Blockchain Applications allow the tracking, tracing, and analytics for products through their supply chain cycle. These applications also allow root cause analysis and offer recommendations in challenging situations such as damaged products, delayed transportation, delayed delivery, and low quality.

These applications offer solutions to business problems such as recalls, disputes, frauds, compliance issues, and counterfeits. They offer analysis and end-to-end traceability across the supply chain. This allows real-time insights for businesses. The following are the applications offered by Oracle at the time of writing this book :.

Enterprises can transform their existing business processes and attain immediate benefits from these business-friendly applications. These applications allow enterprises to develop a blockchain network that allows secure, transparent, and efficient transactions with their suppliers and partners.

Moreover, it solves common business problems with tracking, tracing, visibility, and root cause analysis. This is indeed the future for applications. Such applications work seamlessly with existing on-premise and cloud applications. Businesses can use out-of-the-box blockchain applications, set up their blockchain business network with blockchain network templates, and expand and integrate with applications using pre-built integration.

We are going to learn more about this in subsequent chapters. In this chapter, we delved into ledgers, blockchain definitions, blockchain structure, and layers. We also glanced at blockchain structure, blocks, transactions, and how blocks are added to the blockchain. We have familiarized ourselves with actors, components, and algorithms in blockchain. We also tried to coin the term distributed double-entry also known as triple-entry. Although there are challenges, there is a wide array of opportunities available.

Vivek Acharya is an IT professional and has been in the world of design, consulting, and architecture for approximately 12 years. He is a certified expert on blockchain, Hyperledger Fabric, Software as a service SaaS , and analytics. He loves all things associated with the cloud, permissioned decentralized autonomous organization pDAO , blockchain, predictive analytics, and social business process management BPM. Anand Eswararao Yerrapati is an IT professional with about 12 years of experience in design, development, and the delivery of solutions for the various use cases of many customers.

He works on Platform-as-a-Service PaaS primarily with mobile, chatbots, blockchain cloud service offerings, and their integrations. He loves to develop end-to-end solutions with the integration of multiple products and shares knowledge through blogs and sessions. Nimesh Prakash is an IT solutions consultant with 13 years of experience.

He has been part of multiple facets of enterprise IT solutions including development, design, solution consulting, and architecture. He works and evangelizes on PaaS cloud computing, involving blockchain, chatbots, cloud-native, and container technologies. He has been a regular at public technology events and likes to speak and to demonstrate his areas of interest.

Become well-versed with basic networking concepts such as routing, switching, and subnetting, and prepare for the Microsoft exam. Leverage Docker to unlock efficient and rapid container deployments to improve your development workflow. About this book Hyperledger Fabric empowers enterprises to scale out in an unprecedented way, allowing organizations to build and manage blockchain business networks.

Publication date: September Publisher Packt. Pages ISBN Download code from GitHub. The following diagram shows different types of systems: Types of systems and ledgers. A distributed system is a superset of a decentralized system, and is based on a P2P network.

Being a type of DLT, blockchain ensures immutability of transaction history, right from the genesis block to the current block. We have covered single-entry and double-entry accounting in this chapter. A blockchain ledger is a secure implementation of a distributed double-entry accounting system. DLT types such as blockchain or Hyperledger can be public or private. In public blockchain, each node has equity; however, they can operate with distinct roles, such as miners, as full nodes, where the entire copy of the blockchain will be replicated on such nodes.

They can also act as light nodes and can hold key or block header values only. Smart contracts or chaincode : For a blockchain such as Ethereum, and a DLT such as Hyperledger, smart contracts, or chaincode, are the code logic that is executed on a blockchain network. Participating nodes or blockchain clients can issue transactions against that business logic smart contracts or chaincode. With the inclusion of a blockchain layer, the ledger will store not only the immutable transactions but also the immutable code.

Authentication and authorization are functions of membership services. They are mostly used in private and permissioned blockchains or DLTs. Events are effective ways to allow other subscriber applications or systems to interact with the blockchain network. Consensus : The consensus algorithm or protocol is the core for the existence of blockchain platforms.

Needless to say, a blockchain network cannot exist without consensus. The consensus layer is the most critical and crucial layer for any blockchain Ethereum or Hyperledger, or any other. Consensus is responsible for validating the blocks, ordering the blocks, and ensuring that everyone agrees on it.

The following diagram shows types of networks: P2P network. It also shows the inclusion of consensus in the entire process: Transactions. Following is the overview of these two platforms: Ethereum : It's an open source, public blockchain network. It is an extension of the core blockchain concept and now supports applications beyond currencies. It is a generic platform, and transactions are validated by PoW consensus.

It's a public blockchain; hence, all of the participants can access the ledger. It supports Solidity and has built-in currency Ether. Hyperledger Fabric : It is a platform for enterprise applications. This platform is open source and modular and runs the BFT consensus algorithm. Hyperledger does not truly have a consensus mechanism.

Due to its pluggable architecture, consensus can be plugged to it, based on the use case. Chaincode also known as smart contracts can be written in standard languages such as Java, Go, and Node. It does not have a built-in currency. Operations include the following: Ethereum : It is a public blockchain, where participants nodes can participate any time Hyperledger Fabric : It is a private blockchain, where participants nodes are given permission to participate Consensus is as follows: Ethereum : Roles played by each participating node are similar.

All of the nodes need to reach consensus for a transaction to commit. Every node needs to participate in consensus, even if that node is participating in a transaction. Hyperledger Fabric : Roles played by each participating node can be different. Some nodes are validating nodes, some are endorsing nodes, some are ordering nodes, and so on. Hence, during the process of establishing a consensus, different nodes will be performing different tasks.

There is no third party that is forcing the choice of consensus mechanism. In addition to consensus, Hyperledger Fabric also offers identity verification during the life cycle of the transaction. It also supports channels and private data collection for a more private transaction between parties. Transactions are ordered and then added to blocks, which are then distributed across the channel.

Channels further control the visibility of transactions to the business network participants. The following are a few points to note: Ethereum : Ethereum is public and permissionless and offers transparency. Its various advantages listed in the previous section. However, privacy and scalability are low in Ethereum.

Hyperledger Fabric : It solves privacy and scalability issues and offers access control, high transaction speed, and resilience. Code execution is as follows: Ethereum : Code, also known as smart contracts, is executed on the EVM. Ethereum networks offer services to execute smart contracts and allow them to reach consensus.

They also offer services to invoke external oracles. The scope of a smart contract is until the lifetime of the business network concludes. Hence, it's good development practice to write smart contracts with KILL methods. Hyperledger Fabric : Code, also known as chaincode, can be written in a standard programming language such as Java, Node. Chaincode is executed on the business network and validated and endorsed by business network nodes.

Unlike Ethereum, Hyperledger Fabric supports chaincode versioning and upgrading. Following are some highlights of Hyperledger fabric from chaincode perspective - Chaincode can be upgraded to a new version, as long as you maintain the same name of the chaincode; otherwise, it will be considered a different chaincode. Update is a transaction on the blockchain network and results in the binding of the new version of the chaincode to the channel.

Before you update the chaincode, install a new version of the chaincode on the endorsers. What happens to the old version? All the other channels that are binding to the previous old version of the chaincode can continue to execute the older version. You submit the chaincode upgrade transaction to a channel. Hence, only one channel is affected, to which you have executed the upgrade transaction.

All other channels, on which the upgrade transaction is not executed, will continue to run the older version. Chaincode can even be stopped. However, the start and stop life cycle transactions are not implemented in v1. These are future enhancements. Stop transactions will be a logical way to stop chaincode transactions before upgrading it. Optionally, you can STOP a chaincode by removing the chaincode container from the endorsers.

Practically, you can delete the chaincode's container from each host VM on which the endorsing peers are running. Hyperledger Fabric supports Ethereum. With Hyperledger Fabric version 1. It's a new smart contract runtime and supports web3. This further boosts the development of dApps on permissioned blockchain. A consortium offers many benefits, such as the following: Not every enterprise or organization needs to build solutions to leverage blockchain.

They can share the business network and build it together, which is cost-effective and less time-consuming. Smaller organizations can join the league and join the network on a pay-per-use basis and yet fully scale their business on blockchain. Member organizations of the consortia need to identify the use cases that reflect their common problems. They can then define a governing body and build solutions together to meet business needs.

The identities of the participants are known, which enhances the level of trust. Consensus cannot be influenced as consortium members manage the blockchain network. The blockchain network access control and features of the blockchain network can ensure the privacy of data and enhanced security.

Licenses to participate are issued by regulatory authorities of the blockchain network. Access to transaction data and knowledge about transactions is limited to permissioned participants for particular transactions. Consortia are resilient and offer high security, performance, scalability, and transactional throughput.

The following figure shows various actors for private blockchain network: Blockchain actors. Some of the questions you will need to answer are as follows: Why do you need blockchain and what's the rationale behind it? Is there a strategic choice or a tactical push?

What are you building and how are you building it? Who is involved, how are they involved, who will decide, and so on? Where will the solution reside-on-premises or on the cloud? Who will be managing it? Who will take care of resilience? Many of the answers lie with BaaS.

Is it based on industry standards? Is it compatible and interoperable? Is it interoperable with other ledgers too? Quick setup : Does it allow for the quick provisioning of a blockchain network? Does it offer cloud services such as containers and compute and storage services? Security and privacy : These include the following: Does it offer integrated identity management and security? Does it take care of privacy, data partitioning, and private channels? Does it offer backup and disaster recovery?

Does it offer enhanced performance both blockchain network and consensus? Does it allow rollback to the previous version of chaincode? Does it have a credible development community? Eat your own pill : Does it offer applications on the marketplace and build on its own BaaS? Monitoring : Does it offer transaction monitoring and dashboards?

About the Authors Vivek Acharya Vivek Acharya is an IT professional and has been in the world of design, consulting, and architecture for approximately 12 years. Browse publications by this author. Networking Fundamentals Become well-versed with basic networking concepts such as routing, switching, and subnetting, and prepare for the Microsoft exam By Gordon Davies. Dec pages.

Docker High Performance - Second Edition Leverage Docker to unlock efficient and rapid container deployments to improve your development workflow By Allan Espinosa and 1 more. Apr pages. Centralized ledger. Distributed ledger. Reconciliation is not required; however, a consensus is required to reach an agreement.

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E lrp. In awb. Very good blog! Do you have any tips and hints for aspiring writers? I'm hoping to start my own website soon but I'm a little lost on everything. Would you recommend starting with a free platform like Wordpress or go for a paid option? Pretty much all home users do not need a unique IPv4 routable address.

Inside your on or or 10 NATed addresses. It is business that need IP4v addreses. As they renew ISP home boxes to existing homes, they can recover addresses v4 addresses to their business users. Even further, it's only those businesses who want to run their own on-prem publicly accessible services. Most businesses I know use internet for email, maybe some VOIP, and maybe viewing relevant web sites most of what I know are small shops with less than 5 staff, often less than 2.

Most are happy with hosted sites places like wix[sorry for the swearing] etc. Given how many client systems have included an IPv6 stack for circa two decades, the problem is slightly different, namely getting ISP's to both support IPv6 and supply routers with IPv6 enabled. This would largely remove the need for domestic IPv4 address allocations could let people have one at extra cost if they discover they have devices that only support IPv4 for Internet access.

IPv6 should have been an ISP thing. If they had done that, IPv6 would have been adopted long ago, in the backend, and us users wouldn't even be talking about it. Instead, we have the mess we're trudging through today, with some saying IPv6 is not very different from IPv4. Yeah, except that most everyone is still using IPv4, so IPv6 is neither easy nor convenient enough to adapt to at this point in time. And, since IPv4 addresses are not going anywhere any time soon, I've got the feeling that this kind of conversation will still be taking place in thirty years.

What you suggest wouldn't make any difference because the endpoints will still only be able to specify a bit address when sending data packets. This is the basic issue here. My network card is fully compatible with IPv6, so why do you assume that endpoints wouldn't know how to send a packet to an IPv6 address? I'm not the network guy, I'm talking from an organizational point of view.

And pie-in-sky wishful thinking. They might know how to do it or indeed they might not; have you considered how to handle that case? This is what many mobile networks have already done as they control so much of the configuration especially routerS and would otherwise have to pay more for the addresses. But, otherwise, ISPs counter by saying that as there is no need nor requirement for them to do so and it costs money to change, they won't do it yet.

This could be fixed easily by national regulators… But that would also have involved forcing operating systems and consumer hardware to do IPv6 properly, which was unlikely to happen due the fact that the US still has more than enough IPv4 addresses.

A breakdown by region and mobile or fixed line would probably also show that some countries are pretty much IPv6 already. You still need some kind of agreement for an interconnect and it would have been no problem with requiring telcos the majority of the ISPs to provide IPv6 for the interconnects. They could stay IPv4 internally, though probably wouldn't want to unless they have loads of customers on very old kit that they have no control over. While I am sure that my thermostat and blender have much to offer to the grand discussion that is the internet, no doubt your appliances struggle with the internet equivalent of "Duurrrrr, what you mean, Davey Yes, because instead of being behind some kind of configurable and controllable firewall, they rely on the dead-safe, honest, UPnP to talk to the rest of the world.

Well, they don't have to use UPnP. They could also shovel all your data via a server that they own. The internet of trash. Has internet connectivity, and security is not a selling point, Unlikely your heating or front door camera is going to stay patched and secure for long.

It may be used against you or against other eg in DDos. Best to keep that off your private IPv4 subnet A few weeks ago I was astonished to discover that most email services do not even support IPv6, such as Microsoft's hotmail. Notable exception: Gmail. Why the US government needs so many IP address no will ever know. Their original one and the one they "inherited" from DEC?

My guess is that this is preparation for selling small address blocks if the price justifies it. So there's That one was 'reserved for future use', and the future could be now. But that's.. Multicasting is good for "broadcasting like services" to lots of watchers, eg London traffic cams and Empire State. The multicast enabled routers duplicate on demand. Which makes a bandwidth billing issue. But there are better ways to do this now. Netflix, Youtube look at traffic flows and put servers where they need to in your IPS racks.

They cache near to customer what they can. They duplicate flows where they need to. The DoD loans out its IPv4 address space. It's great for creating all kinds of panic when you check what network your cellphone is using and it's the DoD. I can hide tens of thousands of rfc private IP's IP's behind a handful of public IP's which are easy to look for, filter and monitor. On IPV6, I would have got a completely different subnet, and I would have had to change everything, all the local devices, all the server virtual machines, all the DNS entries for everything, all the printer settings on anything that can access a printer, email settings for my scanner, firewall rules, and loads of other stuff.

You can try to obtain a Provider-independent address space - but it's not for small users, I'm afraid. It's also better to "parametrize" addresses in rules, etc. This is another aspect that probably looked simple in with simpler, flatter, networks, few server and clients configured by SLAAC - not so much later as network complexity grew. Well RFC is still listed as being "experimental" and the IPv6 purists still publicly deriding NAT - wanting the Internet to work the way they thing it should "the right way" and not the way network tech's want and need it to work in the real world.

Certainly the early implementations mandated the MAC address making up the end part of the IP until it was pointed out it was a privacy and security issue and was then made optional. Now this is regarded not nice because it does leak a mostly unique identifier of the device which can be tracked across different networks. Probably that was not thought a big issue in when even usable laptops were a kind of novelty. Actually it was desireable.

Well, desireable by some, mostly the mobile industry. Along with the idea that exposing MAC addresses. Or other hardware identifiers. ISPs kinda scratched their heads wondering what benefit there'd be in MAC tagging, other than user tracking. Much the same with the mobile's argument, especially when the operators twigged that having a globally routable IP address on a phone meant users could potentially escape their walled gardens and do things the operators couldn't charge for.

Every handset would need 4, IPs? No, I've never heard that. No, they already know who their users are, either from the prefix or the connection port. Global address on phone lets you escape their walled garden? No, they can still firewall you or do whatever they could do with RFC addresses, public addressing doesn't change one bit of that. Designed by committee? It has roughly the same design as v4. Ops community has to work out the security implications? Most of them are the same as v4, and for the ones that are different No, that's specifically not what IPs are used for.

There is a important distinction between what IPv6 addresses are now being used for and the ideas that were swimming around in the 90's when it was envisaged that IPv6 addresses could be static and thus could embed IMEI's, MAC addresses, phone numbers etc. IP addresses are assigned by the network you connect to. They simply aren't hardware identifiers.

The other part, the prefix network part of the address can't be embedded - otherwise routing becomes a nightmare - and quite impossible, as routing tables would become ginormous and would need to change as a device moves to a different network - less common in , quite common in with all the mobile stuff.

Yes, one of the ideas floated in the 90's was that the lower 64 bit was sufficiently large for every device to have their own unique and burnt in static address - and given the size of the IPv6 address space why would you want to bother with assigning your own lower 64 bit address components I believe there are several reasons why IPv4 refuses to die and why people are hesistant to change to IPv6.

I think the average person is more likely to remember a X address than the IPv6 equivalent. But if IPv6 is not backwardly compatible and is not being so widely accepted because of that, why not create an IPv7 that is?

Perhaps you wanted v4 to be forwards compatible, but we can't create an IPv7 which v4 is forwards compatible with for the same reason that we didn't create an IPv6 that it's forwards compatible with: because v4 isn't forwards compatible with any address size that's bigger than 32 bits. If you could fix that problem, then we wouldn't need an IPv7. You could just make v4 be forwards compatible with v6.

That's what Jesus would do. Following Kieren's link, one can find Google's stats of IPv6 users, which tells a whole different story than the doom'n'gloom he's peddling, with a rather steady growth:. Isn't that akin to demanding an explanation of why motorcars were not made backward compatible with horses? That seems like something that could explain the lack of an answer. While a little off-topic, I sincerely appreciate the continued illumination of a truly screwed up, asshole driven and morally corrupt company.

I'm not sure that a Belgian catering company ever needed three quarters of that space especially as they haven't used it in 20 years nor that a European weather satellite organisation needs a quarter of it. Great, that buys us a two hour supply of IPs. That'll solve our address shortage. Brilliant plan. The IPV4 header can have an "options" field of up to 40 bytes, so it would have been possible to kludge on an extension to the address size without breaking the header structure.

Good idea, but that would be slightly ugly to implement in the wire-speed hardware, where efficiency is king. If you need a new public facing IP address then from now on you get IPv6 and no choice in the matter. IPv6 works, is demonstrably in use by millions of people and to my knowledge nobody has yet died due to not being able to get an IPv4 address.

Luckily, unless you really want to do something hyper-complicated yes, it's you, the weirdos who just HAVE to subnet the crap out of everything, even when it's totally unnecessary it just works most of the time. I could care less what my public IP address is. Just because there are no longer any free, unallocated IPv4s doesn't mean that we are out of them. What it means is that IPv4 addresses are now a scarce, "rivalrous" resource.

So fucking what? We have an entire field of study dedicated to dealing with rivalrous resources. It's called "economics. So IPv4s will now have price tags attached to them. As demand increases, that price will go up. As the price goes up, people will find ways to use them more efficiently. More carrier NAT, more consolidation of servers behind reverse proxies, etc. And as that becomes more obnoxious, expensive, and inconvenient, those factors will move people to IPv6. And then IPv4 utilization will decrease, the price will eventually drop to zero, few people will notice, and nobody will care.

Enough with the pearl-clutching already. The problem will take care of itself just fine. That is all very well and true, but it's also very counter to the philosophy of the internet. Most proponents of internet use and it's position in society as an overall good usually emphasize the fact that there's no NEED for expensive "rivalrous resources".

It should all be cheap and intangible, made out of thin air and available to the maximum number of people to foster the development and easy transferance of ideas and thoughts. It'd be like arguing that you shouldn't be able to print new books cheaply because we've already used up all the moveable type.

Also, populations increase exponentially, not linearly Thanos is shit at math , so I'm not sure how you figure over a hundred years is a reasonable timeline for predicting a usable pool of IPv4 addresses. And populations also tend to crash catastrophically; given the perfect storm forecast for the coming decades and our unwillingness to change our ways I've been asking them to change to IPv6 for years now.

I finally had to define very pointed questions like "Is ther an actual plan to migrate over, and if so, what is it? I later determined, after literal months of back and forth, that the guys in charge of that sort of thing think they should definitely do it, and have no actual framework or rough idea about HOW they're going to do it outside of saying "We have a rough plan about how we're going to do it" the actual response I got when I asked about what the rough plan might be.

This way many of the issues - still outstanding in IPv6 circa , could be worked on and solved, before IPv6 hit the primetime, ie. However, not been aware of any great impetus in recent years to actually move things forward other than the regular cries of "we're out of IPv4 addresses - people must start using IPv6".

Would it not be possible to convert some local IP address blocks to Internet accessible addresses? The entire range of Same with I pretty much agree, but i wouldn't say "surely". With the growth of interconnected appliances and IoT devices you could likely use a large of that. Imagine the headquarters of a tech company where every coffee machine and lightbulb is a "smart" version of itself.

Surely not. But in my LAN, I use both the For instance, So, while I don't use all of the addresses in the range, I do leverage the ability to use any arbitrary address in those ranges. But does that convenience outweigh the possibility that you will have to share your public IP address with 10 other customers of your ISP? Which would effectively stop you setting up any sort of public-facing server in your home. Yes, actually. I could restrict my use without pain for instance, I don't really need both the If the range that is safe to use gets too restricted, then it just means that I'll implement something to make it work, either with fancy router tricks or switching my LAN to use IPv6.

I'm not sure which way I'd go -- it all depends on what the least painful path is, and I haven't needed to conduct that analysis yet. The fun and games start when two companies merge and both have extensively used This is about the only scenario where I can see the benefit of end systems behind the firewall having universally unique IP addresses.

Weeks or at most months. IPv4 only devices would be museum pieces by now. All consumer ISPs should do this. This will incent web service designers to build IPv6-native applications. The way to make IPv6 "backwards compatible" would have been to make addresses variable-length. Initially, all addresses would just happen to be 32 bits in length.

But after everyone's converted over, then you start handing out addresses that are longer than 32 bits. In 20 years we'd have gotten there by now. For example, if your ISP assigns you And when someone on the other side of the world sends a packet deep into your network, the most specific address on the public Internet is still Think that's silly? People already moan constantly about how "complicated" v6 is, despite v6 using the same addressing and routing model as v4.

I can only imagine how bad it would be if you introduced variable-length addresses, which would be an actual additional complication over v4. But also I don't think making v6 have variable length addresses would help much, because the thing you're trying to make it compatible with is v4 and v4 doesn't have variable-length addresses, so it wouldn't be able to cope with any address length beyond 32 bits.

Variable length addresses wouldn't save you from needing to fix software to handle the new address family and that's going to be fun, what with all existing code being designed around fixed-length addresses. The prevalence of buffer overrun bugs suggests that many programmers can't cope with things that have variable length The other major issue is that routing performance wouldn't be great, since handling a variable length address in hardware is not very fast.

That would probably result in adoption happen slower rather than faster. But it doesn't quite use the same model, remember it is more prescriptive about how the first 64 bits are divided up eg. Although I suppose this is in line with the original specification of IPv4 when subnetting hadn't been considered. It's the same as in v6, with the only real difference being that v6 actually has the space to do sparse, aggregated allocations at all levels. That approach continues to not work.

IPv6 still sits at around 24 per cent of internet traffic - and has actually gone down from last year. The reason for this is people have not been migrating and thanks to the shutdown of some IPv6 tunnel brokers, some people are now back on only IPv4. There are the networks that refuse to peer on IPv6, even when they have done so over IPv4. Then there are the security concerns.

The fact that technical solutions keep removing a sense of urgency. Of course, I am a dual setup and my computers just fall back onto IPv4. It is possible that NAT64 could be their complaint, but my guess is that the folks that are making an excuse to not go to IPv6 are the people that have never used IPv6.

So, I did NAT66 and have been using it ever since. So I blocked them from my router and I setup a tunnel with a different provider. When they finally put in IPv6 I will never be on it. I suspect it's as simple as And if you insist on dealing with the IPs themselves, why did you pick an address like "fdaa:bbcc:ddeec8a:a8c9:d4fb:acf1" when you could just as easily have picked "fd", which is even shorter than the v4 address you used as a comparison?

Because in the real world you'll find that devices will typically have IPv6 addresses of the form:. So given the constraints of the Fundamentally, IPv4 comes from a time when making things easy for people to use was a consideration.

The address you gave is If you get your v6 addresses from a DHCP server like you do in v4, then your address will look like the one I gave in my original post. You'll only need to remember the "" bit, which is basically no different to v4. Only to the extent that I transcribed it incorrectly, switching a digit and colon. Which demonstrates quite nicely that IPv6 addresses aren't really intended to be used by humans, even ones used to working in hex Yes, it was a local link address, but it was to hand and illustrates the point: put a wireshark on a LAN and on many networks in todays IPv4 first environment, you will lots of 'interesting' IPv6 addresses.

As I've not seen a pure IPv6 network, I'm not sure what I would see, but given IPv4, I anticipate in addition to the DHCP assigned addresses there will be a few 'interesting' addresses that will need to be investigated. One of the things you want in a business is a barrier to entry for would-be competitors, the higher the better. If there is no barrier to entry then competition will drive prices down to the point where you can barely make any money as any Uber driver will tell you.

Having a barrier to entry lets you raise prices to just below the point where competitors would find it profitable to buy in. In fact the secondary market makes those an appreciating asset, something else that businesses like to have. If IPv6 becomes widespread then this barrier to entry disappears and the existing pools of IPv4 become worthless. So it is in the ISPs interests to delay this evil day for as long as possible.

I'm on Vodafone fibre. No IPv6 yet or even planned. They did find time to send me a new router that my laptop doesn't like though. I have a personal Fb page but it's locked down and with minimal info on it because it's sole function is to administer my business page. Since Fb don't allow you to create a business page without a personal page to administer it I have no choice. My family has been informed of this and that no messaging will be responded to or friends made.

I could do without cute family bagy photos I've just become a Great Uncle cluttiering things up. As for advertising on Fb, I've never seen any. Maybe Adblock really does work, or something. So get up the hardware manufacturers to guarantee their gear can do that and that be one step in the right direction. The problem with IPv6 is not whether it can be made to work, clearly it does.

Since that will never happen, we can predict that IPv6 will never deliver any value. There is absolutely nothing you can do on IPv6 that you can't do with IPv4. And the world hasn't exhausted it's creativity with IPv4 addresses yet, such as utilizing the massive reserved I'm pretty sure I've explained to you before that v6 does deliver value even before every device supports it.

It's delivering value right now, so we can already declare your prediction wrong. NAT is not as capable as you think. There are many things it breaks, and many things that are still possible in the face of NAT but only with additional effort and expense. NAT is useful as a delaying tactic but is not a desirable end goal. However, turning IPv6 on breaks everything in my house, starting with Ubuntu upgrades, so off it has gone and off it stays.

If and when we eventually switch to all IPv6, as IT techs, how in blazes are we going to remember IP addresses in our heads? You're going to pick addresses like "dbd", which isn't really that much longer than " IPv4 depletion and IPv6 slow adoption are obvious reasons why jacs. Not a member of The Register? Create a new account here. Remember me on this computer? Post anonymously? The Register - Independent news and views for the tech community.

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This post has been deleted by its author. Errrr Nope it isn't. The cut-off-your-nose-to-spite-your-face guy! Tuesday 26th November GMT tip pc. Wednesday 27th November GMT gnarlymarley. Easy Peezy If you don't use an IP it should revert back for re-assignment. Do Sky really give you a routable IPv6 address, or is it just a link-local one? If they did I'd use it. Tuesday 26th November GMT sebbb. Tuesday 26th November GMT bombastic bob. IPv6 not that hard Re: IPv6 not that hard Your phone almost certainly uses IPv6.

But I bet that your phone does and you don't even know it. And he will be dead in a ditch. Boris wins one. I'm sure he most certainly could get a majority vote on that. Tuesday 26th November GMT iainr. Tuesday 26th November GMT heyrick. The main hold outs are Virgin Media and Talk Talk. Tuesday 26th November GMT druck. Most residential cheap ISPs don't currently provide IPv6 connectivity Fixed that for you - and to be fair, most people wouldn't know what IPv6 was if it bit them.

Although, a downside of X. Wednesday 27th November GMT fibrefool. Tuesday 26th November GMT codejunky. Doctor Syntax "But won't this get in the way of the Corbyn internet for all promise. Except for the tax bit. But could you pay a tax bit in bitcoins? Re: Doctor Syntax "And it will be free! Re: Doctor Syntax Until future upgrade costs are compared to how many extra doctors we could have instead of slightly faster internet. Re: Doctor Syntax and the tax will be "for the many not the few".

Monday 25th November GMT auburnman The internet will be privatised Lack of new addresses means existing companies find themselves sitting on an artificially scarce resource - the hyper-capitalist dream. Monday 25th November GMT cdegroot. Re: The internet will be privatised agreed. Re: The internet will be privatised Rubbish. Tuesday 26th November GMT hammarbtyp.

Tuesday 26th November GMT phuzz. We're keeping it for now Re: The internet will be privatised those net blocks aren't issued by ISPs? Who issued them? Wednesday 27th November GMT phuzz. Re: The internet will be privatised "those net blocks aren't issued by ISPs? Tuesday 26th November GMT elaar. They'd raise a ton of money Re: The internet will be privatised "Lack of new addresses means existing companies find themselves sitting on an artificially scarce resource - the hyper-capitalist dream.

Wednesday 27th November GMT veti. Re: The internet will be privatised It's interesting to view "online" through the "frontier" metaphor. IP6 is not backward compatible. Unfortunately, most content lives on IP4 and will for quite some time. Google Hangouts I believe can utilize IP6.

They belong together. Re: Nope, never saw this coming All of them are fairly dubious players but I very much doubt IPv6 will benefit them much in their surveillance capitalism endeavours. Re: Nope, never saw this coming " This typically means that your laptop or phone behind your home router gets a different IP every day, the first part of the address stays the same, the second part varies.

Re: Nope, never saw this coming Lots of mobile networks moved to IPv6 years ago. Tuesday 26th November GMT jmch. Re: Nope, never saw this coming "Shhhh 22 year old secret And don't forget the IPv6 to IPv4 compatibility addresses Re: Nope, never saw this coming was thinking later.. Do the existing IPv4 addresses risk rusting out, or fading away? Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" Existing addresses are not going anywhere but try to set up a new ISP or online service that needs blocks of IPv4 addresses.

Tuesday 26th November GMT cb7. Tuesday 26th November GMT nematoad. Tuesday 26th November GMT david Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" Agreed - the people who "designed" IPv6 were the same sort of ivory tower theorists that would have thought that oblong wheels were a good idea.

Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" The people who designed Ipv6 knew fully what the issues with Ipv4 were, and designed a system thatg could cope with them. They spent years sorting out issues most people wouldn't have even thought of.

Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" designed a system thatg could cope with them While introducing a whole lot more issues - some of which don't yet have workarounds.. Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" What? It had the capacity to be properly firewalled. What are you on about? Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" In fact sometimes reading comments on IP tech I wonder if this is a website with technical and enthusiast people or just a bunch of tired-to-chase-tech people that would rather stick with their Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" So would you have us show up at the Carrousel for a bit, or just go straight to the Soylent Green factory?

Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" The problem is it was and "the Internet" was still a small "nerdy" network with very few commercial companies and almost no "consumer" users. Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" How, exactly, does adding 4 bytes instead of 12 bytes make the transition any easier? Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" I'd be able to remember an extra four bytes? Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" 64 bits isn't enough.

Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" Even if they had added only one byte to the IPv4 address it would still have required a complete redesign of every network stack in the world, an upgrade or replacement of every hardware network device in the world and a complete reconfiguration of allocations.

Which of course wasn't necessary for IPv6 given it's backward compatibility.. No, wait.. Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" If IPv6 hadn't been artificially complicated in an engineer's fevered dream, there would have been no problem to go to IPv6. You mean, somethung like: Addresses in this group consist of an bit prefix of zeros, the next 16 bits are ones, and the remaining, least-significant 32 bits contain the IPv4 address.

Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" "Just tack on four more bytes, and consider that the existing IPv4 space was simply Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" Protocols only work if everyone wanting to use the protocol supports it.

There isn't enough space in an IPv4 packet header for any number of extra bytes of address. Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" Fragmenting the address data in the IP header and requiring more process steps to compute the real address and route it would increases the time required to process each packet. Especially in the s, with the processing power available at the time.

Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" Honest question - why can't we do this? Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" IPv6 a monster of a thing that only network engineers can understand Actually - most network engineers that I know especially those as old as me don't understand IPv6 either. Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" If you understand v4, then you understand v6.

Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" Transitioning quickly away from v4 wouldn't make v4 forwards compatible, it'd just take us off of the incompatible protocol quickly which would avoid the problem, sure. If the leading 4 bytes are padding then there's no point in them being there. There was no point to IPv6 until now! Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" You talk about "academic institutions" like they're one entity, but they're not. I'm honestly sceptical about your chances, there.

Re: "We have now run out of IPv4 addresses" In the early 80s perhaps, but in the early 90s? Tuesday 26th November GMT Kevin McMurtrie Cloudy Now that the whole world is convinced that you should use "the cloud" there's no reason to worry about anything. Re: In anticipation of the inevitable "why hasn't el reg got ip6 access"? The image hosting domain, regmedia. Sorry :- Fair do's for not deleting my post!

If you want to blame anybody, blame the designers of IPv Tuesday 26th November GMT sean. Re: Lies, damned lies, and statistics that don't lie. I remember CIDR subnet masks beening introduced. The change did not require much relearning. With proxy arp, the change was pretty painless. If you ping scan the internet, much of the addresses are actually not responding, There is massive scope to recover addresses.

If IP addresses were taxed or widely traded, there would be a reason to do this hard thing. The trading of IP addresses is possible, but there is no clear approved way to do this. How do you expect your ISP to provide support if you block ping? Wednesday 4th December GMT david Have a beer for the fantasy anyway!

Tuesday 26th November GMT simpfeld. Tuesday 26th November GMT katrinab. Managed to double my parents phone bills before they caught on to what I was doing. Icon coz my memory's a little fuzzy on things too Tuesday 26th November GMT theblackhand. Not if you believe El Reg's armchair network "engineers" it doesn't! Well, we can always hope. Wishful thinking. Re: This just in Should get it down to 32 bits quite easily.

These intractable problems are easy! Problem solved Somebody obviously wants to keep all of the numbers I'll compress it a few times until it drops to zero downvotes. Re: compatibility There is a form of address allocation that uses legacy addresses, but it isn't "compatible" in any meaningful sense: it doesn't help an IPv4 host communicate with an IPv6 host that can't have a bit address because none are left. Re: compatibility Thats not backwards compatibility though, its forwards compatibility.

Re: Vicious Circle Many ISPs doesn't bother to offer IPv6 - it will make their network configuration and management more complex, end-user support more expensive, they can make some money renting "fixed" IPv4 addresses, and they would need to buy IPv6 address space as well. Tuesday 26th November GMT pmb00cs. That's a clear difference and departure from IPv4 where you are much freer.

Wednesday 27th November GMT pmb00cs. Wednesday 27th November GMT sean. The existence of free hosts should help cut IP needs for businesses considerably. IPv6 to IPv4 adapters! Go on birds, go to make money! Re: Here is your new scam! Re: What should have happened with IPv6 What you suggest wouldn't make any difference because the endpoints will still only be able to specify a bit address when sending data packets. With unicorns. Re: What should have happened with IPv6 This is what many mobile networks have already done as they control so much of the configuration especially routerS and would otherwise have to pay more for the addresses.

Re: What should have happened with IPv6 "This could be fixed easily by national regulators…" The internet distrusts national regulators. Re: What should have happened with IPv6 You still need some kind of agreement for an interconnect and it would have been no problem with requiring telcos the majority of the ISPs to provide IPv6 for the interconnects.

Tuesday 26th November GMT Anonymous Coward The good news is that this crimps IoT deployment While I am sure that my thermostat and blender have much to offer to the grand discussion that is the internet, no doubt your appliances struggle with the internet equivalent of "Duurrrrr, what you mean, Davey Re: The good news is that this crimps IoT deployment Yes, because instead of being behind some kind of configurable and controllable firewall, they rely on the dead-safe, honest, UPnP to talk to the rest of the world.

Sure, they already have an incentive to do that, but now they have an excuse too. Saturday 30th November GMT sean. Re: The good news is that this crimps IoT deployment The internet of trash. That's the bit I like, it makes geo-blocking blocking VPNs easier! Where's the pirate icon when you need it? Stolen, no doubt! Re: Most email services do not support IPv6 hotmail. If I ping outlook. For ref, this is in the UK, on a home Sky broadband. Re: We can take entire 24 ranges back The M. Not going to happen unless they get forced to.

Apple have yet to pass control back to a registry. Re: We can take entire 24 ranges back Good, that should buy us about 3 weeks. But what then? Multicast is still good for CCTV but off the internet. Tuesday 26th November GMT tip pc no one bothering to no enquiry as to why organisations are reluctant to go ipv6 there are some terrible privacy issues with IPv6, hackers will have a field day exfiltrating data, sys admins will struggle to identify hard enough with ipv4 systems that shouldn't be doing bad things etc.

Re: no one bothering to no enquiry as to why organisations are reluctant to go ipv6 Another thing, if you change ISPs, as I did recently; on IPV4, the only thing I needed to change was the A record for gateway. Re: no one bothering to no enquiry as to why organisations are reluctant to go ipv6 If IPv6 had embraced NAT at the start it would have gained much earlier adoption. If they where creating IPv6 today it would look very very different to what we currently have.

Re: why did IPv6 use bit Hex? Your post seems to be mostly made up. No, that's specifically not what IPs are used for There is a important distinction between what IPv6 addresses are now being used for and the ideas that were swimming around in the 90's when it was envisaged that IPv6 addresses could be static and thus could embed IMEI's, MAC addresses, phone numbers etc.

I hadn't realised El Reg had billions of readers Tuesday 26th November GMT find users who cut cat tail. Re: This is probably a dumb question Google's IPv6 Statistics Peaked? Re: IPV4. Have you ever tried writing down an IPV6 address? And now I'll get flamed to a crisp, but I'm still right.

Re: Bullshit. Hardware is getting cheaper. May need to apply a suitable distributed structure like DNS. Re: Convert some local addresses? Could I live without doing that? Sure, but being able to do this is very convenient. This will be IP protocol V6. Backwards compatible The way to make IPv6 "backwards compatible" would have been to make addresses variable-length. Re: Backwards compatible People already moan constantly about how "complicated" v6 is, despite v6 using the same addressing and routing model as v4.

Re: Backwards compatible v4 divides its addresses up in exactly the same way. Because in the real world you'll find that devices will typically have IPv6 addresses of the form: fecff:fefa0f and IPv4 address - provided by your DHCP server of the form: Depends on context, as I said looking through syslogs, DNS doesn't help you.

Wednesday 27th November GMT Muscleguy Technically but not actually, properly, meaningfully I have a personal Fb page but it's locked down and with minimal info on it because it's sole function is to administer my business page. Email Your email address is never published.

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